Atlas of pathology
Where: genitourinary system, female genitourinay tract
Differential diagnosis: Other
The deposit is precipitated calcium carbonate or chalk which is derived from the urine. Calcium deposits in the bladder of sows are common particulaly in areas with high calcium salt content in water supplies (hard water) and periodically will be flushed out during urination and deposit on the vulval lips as a dry powder. In itself it is of no pathological significance and is not associated with pregnancy failure; if excessive buildup occurs in the bladder this can cause inflammation and act as a trigger for cystitis or even ascending pyelonephritis particularly in sows that are confined or generally inactive. Increasing water availability and encouraging more frequent urination will improve flushing and reduce such build up. In extremes water filtration/sedimentation systems may be needed.
It can be confused with a drying purulent vulval discharge arising from bacterial infection of the vagina, cervix or uterus but in such cases there is likely to be loss of pregnacy and return to service.
Flow back of semen is common post service but would not be evident beyond 48h post mating/insemination.