Diseases

Diseases caused by bacteria

AppPleuropneumonia is a disease of bacterial origin with a high respiratory impact. The production of toxins can often cause sudden death with nasal hemorrhage.

ActinobacillosisActinobacillosis is caused by a systemic bacteria that affects many farms that have high health issues causing arthritis, pneumonia, or skin discoloration in animals of all ages.

AnthraxAnthrax in pigs is relatively rare and it may occur as sudden death. It can also take other forms of presentation, depending on the location of the infection: pharynx anthrax, intestinal anthrax or systemic anthrax. It is very critical to carry out a necropsy in the field because the environment can get contaminated with the spores. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease.

Atrophic RhinitisRhinitis is inflammation of the tissues inside the nose where the nose may become distorted (atrophy).

BordetelosisBordetella bronchiseptica is a bacterium that can cause fever or pneumonia in pigs. Without complications, and without the presence of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type D, the disease has little clinical or economic consequences.

BotulismToxins produced by Clostridium botulinum cause a progressive flaccid paralysis, but pigs are very resistant to the toxin.

BrucellosisBrucellosis is a disease of bacterial origin with negative impact on reproduction performances. It causes testes inflammation and abortions. It is a zoonotic disease.

CampylobacterThe Campylobacter infection, although it is usually subclinical, mainly affects piglets causing fever and diarrhea.

Clostridium difficileClostridium difficile disease is characterized by diarrhea in piglets of a few hours.

Clostridium novyiClostridium novyi disease is characterized by gangrene and / or cellulite with sudden death.

Clostridium perfringensDiseases caused by Clostridium perfringens appear as a chronic or acute enteritis in piglets.

ColibacillosisDiarrhea by E. coli affects mainly lactating piglets, causing high mortality.

ColitisColitis is an infection of the large intestine mainly in pigs from 6 to 14 weeks of age. This is characterized by diarrhea without blood and with few or no mucus.

Edema diseaseThe Edema disease happens during the weaning period and it is characterized by a E. coli K88 (F4) or F18 producing a very strong vascular toxin inducing sudden death, edema and/or nervous signs.

Enzootic Pneumonia (EP)The main issue associated with M. hyopneumoniae infections is chronic respiratory disease. This pathogen usually amplifies the severity of other infections, including flu and PRRS.

ErysipelaErysipelas is a systemic bacterial disease characterized by diamond shaped skin lesions and arthritis in its chronic forms.

Exudative EpidermitisCaused by the bacteria Staphylococcus hyicus, which invades damaged skin, causing cutaneous infection with eczema or humid dermatitis in lactating piglets and weaners.

Glässer diseaseThe Glässer disease is caused by a bacteria called Haemophilus parasuis, which causes polyserositis and sporadic arthritis in piglets and growers.

IleitisThe disease has three different presentations: porcine intestinal adenopathy (PIA), an abnormal proliferation of the intestinal mucosa; necrotic enteritis (NI), where the proliferated cells of the small intestine die and slough off with a gross thickening of the small intestine (hosepipe gut); and acute hemorrhagic ileitis,an hyper-acute inflammation which causes massive bleeding.

LeptospirosisLeptospirosis is a disease caused by a bacterium that has a predilection for kidneys and can also cause reproductive problems.

ListeriosisListeriosis is a rare systemic bacterial disease that can cause septicemia in piglets and can also cause reproductive problems in sows.

MMAThis pathology consists of inflammation of the udder (mastitis) and inflammation of reproductive tract (metritis) resulting in a poor milk release or reduction of its production (Agalactia).

Mycoplasma suisMycoplasma suis causes anemia and agalactia in swine. Formerly referred to as the Eperythrozoonosis disease.

Mycoplasmal arthritisMycoplasma hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis are present in most farms and cause arthritis in swine.

PasteurellosisPasteurella multocida is usually the cause of pneumonia as secondary infection to another respiratory pathogen (enzootic pneumonia, PRRS, flu)

SalmonellosisSalmonellosis is an important bacterial disease in swine for its capacity to provoke food intoxication in humans. Clinically, Salmonellosis appears as diarrhea, systemic disease or pneumonia.

Streptococcal infectionsStreptococcus suis is the most important streptococcus of pigs causing pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis and encephalitis in pigs and is also of great public importance for its zoonotic potential.

Swine dysenterySwine dysentery is caused by a spirochete called Brachyspira and causes severe inflammation in the large intestine producing bloody and mucous diarrhea.

TetanusClostridium tetani produces toxins that affect the central nervous system causing hypersensitivity, stiffness in legs and muscles, and opisthotonos.

TuberculosisSwine tuberculosis is rare today, being the most common the Mycobacterium avium complex. It causes nodules in the lymph nodes of the neck resulting in the seizure of carcasses at the slaughterhouse.

Yersinia infectionThe Yersinia infection is usually subclinical although weaning piglets may have diarrhea.

Diseases caused by virus

African swine feverAfrican swine fever is one of the most important viral diseases in pigs. It is a systemic disease and is notifiable on most countries.

Aujeszky's diseaseThe Aujeszky's disease is caused by a virus that can remain latent and causes respiratory, reproductive and nervous problems.

Blue eye diseaseIt is a viral disease that produces nervous symptoms, reproductive failure and corneal opacity that develops a bluish color.

Bovine viral diarrhoea virusDisease caused by two pestivirus of the same group of swine fever. These viruses mainly affect cattle and sheep, but can enter into reproductive swine farms causing problems.

Classical Swine FeverClassical swine fever is one of the most important viral diseases in pigs. It is a systemic disease and it is notifiable in most countries.

Delta coronavirusThe diarrhea caused by deltacoronavirus is similar to porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) but with a very low severity.

Ebola Reston virusEbola is a very important infection in humans. Of the five species of Ebola virus, Ebola Reston virus does not infect humans but can infect pigs.

EncephalomyocarditisInfection caused by Encephalomyocarditis virus, present in the whole world, it usually has no clinical importance, but there are some myocarditis cases with high mortality or reproductive problems.

EnterovirusesSwine enterovirus are viruses that live in the intestine, although their clinical significance is questionable.

Foot-and-mouth diseaseFoot-and-mouth disease is one of the most important vesicular diseases.

Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitisHemagglutinating encephalomyelitis disease only affects pigs of less than 4 weeks old and is characterized by vomiting and wasting.

Hepatitis E virusHepatitis E has been identified in pigs with uncertain clinical significance, but it is a very important viral infection in humans, more seen in third world countries of Asia and Africa.

InfluenzaInfluenza is a respiratory disease of high importance due to its fast transmission and zoonotic potential.

Japanese B EncephalitisJapanese B encephalitis is caused by a virus found in South Asia, it is transmitted by mosquitoes and appears as a reproductive problem.

Nipah virus diseaseThe Nipah virus causes a respiratory disease in pigs with a huge zoonotic consequence.

PRRSThe Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the viral infection with the highest economical impact in North America and many European countries. The virus causes reproductive problems and affects the respiratory system.

Porcine circovirosisPorcine circovirus is caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and has a hogh economical impact. Clinically it is presented as a disease which deteriorates weaning to finishing animals condition, with a high mortality rate. It also causes dermatitis and nephropathia with high mortality.

Porcine cytomegalovirus infectionThe cytomegalovirus infection is common and its consequences are often insignificant; it is characterized by rhinitis causing sneezes.

Porcine epidemic diarrheaPorcine epidemic diarrhea is caused by a coronavirus leading to vomits and diarrhea with mortality up to 100% withing sensitive piglets under 2 weeks of age.

Porcine parvovirus infectionParvovirus affects mainly non-vaccinated primiparous sows, causing reproductive problems such as mummies.

Porcine respiratory coronavirus infectionThe infection with porcine respiratory coronavirus is usually not of clinical importance but seems to produce antibodies that protect against viral transmissible gastroenteritis.

RabiesRabies is a rare viral disease in pigs.

Rotavirus infectionRotavirus infections are presented clinically as a diarrhea in lactating piglets or in the first 2 weeks after weaning

Swine poxSwine smallpox is a vesicular condition caused by a virus and mainly transmitted through lice.

Swine vesicular diseaseThe Swine vesicular disease is not a common pathology but its importance its based on its clinical presence, undifferentiated from the Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).

Teschen diseaseCommonly Teschovirus do not produce clinical cases, but there are very virulent strains that affect the central nervous system.

Torque teno sus virus In pigs, the torque teno virus was initially associated with the wasting syndrome related with circovirus but today its importance is unknown.

Transmissible gastroenteritisTransmissible gastroenteritis is a very important and highly infectious disease in pigs, with severe impact in reproduction, where diarrhea can cause a 100% mortality in piglets younger than 2 weeks of age.

Vesicular exanthemaVesicular exanthema is clinically indistinguishable from Foot-and-mouth disease and therefore is of great importance.

Vesicular stomatitisVesicular stomatitis produces a disease clinically indistinguishable from Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and therefore is of great importance.

Diseases caused by parasites

AscariasisAscaris suum is the worldwide most important intestinal parasite for its great economic losses.

CoccidiosisThe Coccidiosis disease is caused by intracellular protozoan parasites causing mainly diarrhea in piglets.

CryptosporidiosisCryptosporidium are parasites similar to the coccidia parasites and can also cause diarrhea.

Louse infestationThe Haematopinus suis is the pigs’ louse, that can cause anemia and is the main way of transmission for swine smallpox.

MangeScabies is a skin disease caused by an external parasite (mite) which is characterized by severe swelling that affects the growth of pigs.

MetastrongylosisThe pneumonia caused by Metastrongylus spp worms is disseminated worldwide, especially in pigs raised outdoors.

Red stomach wormThe red stomach worm can cause stomach gastritis.

ToxoplasmosisThe toxoplasmosis infection is usually subclinical but is of great importance for its zoonotic potential

TrichinellosisTrichinella is an infection without clinical signs , but with great zoonotic importance.

TrichuriasisTrichuris suis (whip worm) is a parasite of the large intestine that causes diarrhea in growing pigs.

Other

Atresia aniAnal atresia is a congenital condition in which piglets are born without the outer hole of the rectum. These pigs have an abdomen that increases in size with age. The condition is difficult to repair and therefore these piglets must be euthanized.

Congenital TremorSporadic disease in which tremors are observed in newborn piglets. They appear from birth and with age, they are reduced.

Epitheliogenesis imperfectaCongenital condition in which the piglet is born deprived of skin areas. It is rare.

FrostbiteIt is the result of skin and superficial tissues necrosis by low temperatures.

Gastric ulcersGastric ulcers are usual and are characterized by anemic pigs, pallid and with bloody feces.

Hemorrhagic bowel syndromeThe cause of intestinal hemorrhagic syndrome in pigs is unknown, but its outcome is a sudden death.

HerniasAmong the many congenital abnormalities, umbilical or inguinal hernias are the most common. They are considered development defects and have a very low heritability.

OsteochondrosisOsteochondrosis is a non-infectious condition that causes lameness in animals of very rapid growth.

Pityriasis roseaPityriasis rosea is a noncontagious dermatitis present in young pigs 3-16 weeks of age.

Porcine stress syndromePorcine stress syndrome is a genetic condition that causes sudden death and a pale, soft, exudative muscle resulting in dark, dry and hard flesh.

Prolapse of the vagina and cervixProlapse of vagina and cervix often occur during the last third of gestation, including the immediate pre-partum period.

Rectal prolapseIt consists of the eversion of the rectum.

Rectal strictureRectal constriction or narrowing is a frequent pathology considered as a consequence of rectal prolapse.

Shoulder ulcersShoulder ulcers occur in sows with a low body condition and are detrimental to the welfare of the sow.

Splay legThis is a condition in which the newborn piglet is unable to maintain its legs together.

SunburnSunburns are present especially in outdoor reared white pigs.

Thrombocytopaenic purpuraThrombocytopenia purpura is a rare disease seen in piglets of 7-21 days characterized by a failure in coagulation.

Torsion of the stomach and the intestinesTorsion of the stomach or of the small intestine is a common cause of sudden death.

Uterine ProlapseConsists of the partial or complete eversion of one or both uterine horns.

ViceVices in weaned pigs and in growing pigs can be present in several animal production farmsherds, causing economic losses and increasing concern for animal welfare.

Nutritional deficiencies

Biotin deficiencyBiotin deficiency is rare, but it may take the form of skin condition or lameness with hair loss and / or cracks in hooves.

Iron deficiency anemiaCauses of anemia are several, but its clinical form is especially seen in piglets causing paleness and affecting its growth.

Mulberry heart diseaseDeficiency of vitamin E or selenium is presented with sudden death in recently weaned piglets.

Osteoporosis, ricketts, Vit D deficiencyOsteoporosis is characterized by a lack of calcium, phosphorus, or vitamin D, which causes to have weak bones prone to fractures.

Toxicoses

AflatoxicosisAflatoxins are mycotoxins produced during periods of drought and with great importance because they are carcinogenic, cause a reduction of the synthesis of proteins that affect the growth of pigs and weakens their immune system.

ErgotismThe toxins produced by the ergot reduce growth when are in low amounts. If present in substantial amounts, they produce limb gangrene and necrosis of tail and ears.

Fumonisin toxicosisFumonisin is a very potent mycotoxin that causes pulmonary edema with high mortality.

Salt poisoningSalt poisoning is common, it is related with the unavailability of water, and it affects the central nervous system.

VomitoxicosisVomitoxin is a mycotoxin producing rejection of feed, resulting in slow growth of pigs.

Zearalenone toxicosisIt is an estrogenic toxin that appears in the maize and is produced by Fusarium graminearum, which requires high levels of moisture for the propagation and production of the toxin.