Diseases caused by bacteria

AppPleuropneumonia is a disease of bacterial origin with a high respiratory impact. The production of toxins can often cause sudden death with nasal hemorrhage.

ActinobacillosisActinobacillosis is caused by a systemic bacteria that affects many farms that have high health issues causing arthritis, pneumonia, or skin discoloration in animals of all ages.

AnthraxAnthrax in pigs is relatively rare and it may occur as sudden death. It can also take other forms of presentation, depending on the location of the infection: pharynx anthrax, intestinal anthrax or systemic anthrax. It is very critical to carry out a necropsy in the field because the environment can get contaminated with the spores. Anthrax is a zoonotic disease.

Atrophic RhinitisRhinitis is inflammation of the tissues inside the nose where the nose may become distorted (atrophy).

BordetelosisBordetella bronchiseptica is a bacterium that can cause fever or pneumonia in pigs. If there are not complications, and without the presence of toxigenic Pasteurella multocida type D, the disease has little clinical or economic consequences.

BotulismToxins produced by Clostridium botulinum cause progressive flaccid paralysis, but pigs are very resistant to the toxin.

BrucellosisBrucellosis is a disease of bacterial origin with negative impact on reproduction performance. It causes testes inflammation and abortions. It is a zoonotic disease of significant importance.

CampylobacterThe Campylobacter infection, although it is usually subclinical, mainly affects piglets causing diarrhea.

Clostridium difficileClostridium difficile disease is characterized by diarrhea in piglets within first of a few hours of birth.

Clostridium novyiClostridium novyi disease is characterized by gangrene and / or cellulitis with sudden death.

Clostridium perfringensDiseases caused by Clostridium perfringens appear as a chronic or acute enteritis in piglets. In some cases in growing and adult animals you can also have a disease characterized by gangrene and / or cellulite with sudden death.

ColibacillosisDiarrhea by E. coli affects mainly lactating piglets, causing high mortality.

ColitisColitis is an infection of the large intestine mainly in pigs from 6 to 14 weeks of age. This is characterized by diarrhea without blood and with few or no mucus.

Edema diseaseThe Edema disease happens during the weaning period and it is characterized by a E. coli K88 (F4) or F18 producing a very strong vascular toxin inducing sudden death, edema and/or nervous signs.

Enzootic Pneumonia (EP)The main issue associated with M. hyopneumoniae infections is chronic respiratory disease. This pathogen usually amplifies the severity of other infections, including flu and PRRS.

ErysipelaErysipelas is a systemic bacterial disease characterized by diamond shaped skin lesions and arthritis in its chronic forms.

Exudative EpidermitisCaused by the bacteria Staphylococcus hyicus, which invades damaged skin, causing cutaneous infection with eczema or humid dermatitis in lactating piglets and weaners.

Glässer diseaseThe Glässer disease is caused by a bacteria called Haemophilus parasuis, which causes polyserositis and sporadic arthritis in piglets and growers.

IleitisThe disease has three different presentations: porcine intestinal adenopathy (PIA), an abnormal proliferation of the intestinal mucosa; necrotic enteritis (NI), where the proliferated cells of the small intestine die and get detached with a gross thickening of the small intestine (hosepipe gut); and acute hemorrhagic ileitis,an hyper-acute inflammation which causes massive bleeding.

LeptospirosisLeptospirosis is a disease caused by a bacterium that has affinity for kidneys and genital tracts. Can also cause reproductive problems.

ListeriosisListeriosis is a rare systemic bacterial disease that can cause septicemia in piglets and can also cause reproductive problems in sows.

Mycoplasma arthritisMycoplasma hyosynoviae and M. hyorhinis are present in most farms and cause arthritis in swine.

Mycoplasma suisMycoplasma suis causes anemia and agalactia in swine. Formerly referred as Eperythrozoonosis disease.

PasteurellosisPasteurella multocida is usually the cause of pneumonia as secondary infection to another respiratory pathogen (enzootic pneumonia, PRRS, flu)

Postpartum Agalactia SyndromeThis pathology consists of inflammation of the udder (mastitis) and inflammation of reproductive tract (metritis) resulting in a poor milk release or reduction of its production (Agalactia).

SalmonellosisSalmonellosis is an important bacterial disease in swine for its capacity to produce food intoxication in humans. Clinically, Salmonellosis appears as diarrhea, systemic disease or pneumonia.

Streptococcal infectionsStreptococcus suis is the most important streptococcus of pigs causing pneumonia, septicemia, arthritis and encephalitis in pigs and is also of great public importance for its zoonotic potential.

Swine dysenterySwine dysentery is caused by a spirochete called Brachyspira and causes severe inflammation in the large intestine producing bloody and mucous diarrhea.

TetanusClostridium tetani produces toxins that affect the central nervous system causing hypersensitivity, stiffness in legs and muscles, and opisthotonos.

TuberculosisSwine tuberculosis is rare today, but the most common is the Mycobacterium avium complex. Its importance lies in the fact that it causes nodules in the lymph nodes in the neck that result in the confiscation of carcasses in the slaughterhouse.

Yersinia infectionThe Yersinia infection is usually subclinical although weaning piglets may have diarrhea.

Diseases caused by virus

African swine feverAfrican swine fever is one of the most important viral diseases in pigs. It is a systemic disease and is notifiable on most countries.

Aujeszky's diseaseThe Aujeszky's disease is caused by a virus that can remain latent and causes respiratory, reproductive and nervous problems.

Blue eye diseaseIt is a viral disease that produces nervous symptoms, reproductive failure and corneal opacity that develops a bluish color.

Bovine viral diarrhoea virusDisease caused by two pestiviruses in the same group as the swine fever virus. These viruses mainly affect cattle and sheep, but can enter pig farms causing reproductive problems.

Classical Swine FeverClassical swine fever is one of the most important viral diseases in pigs. It is a systemic disease and it is notifiable in most countries.

Delta coronavirusThe diarrhea caused by deltacoronavirus is similar to porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) but at a very low severity.

Ebola Reston virusEbola is a very significant infection in humans. Of the five species of Ebola virus, Ebola Reston virus does not infect humans but can infect pigs.

EncephalomyocarditisInfection caused by Encephalomyocarditis virus, found globally. Usually it is of no clinical importance, but there are some myocarditis cases with high mortality or reproductive problems.

EnterovirusesSwine enterovirus are found in the intestine, although their clinical significance is questionable.

Foot-and-mouth diseaseFoot-and-mouth disease is one of the most important vesicular diseases.

Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitisHemagglutinating encephalomyelitis disease only affects pigs less than 4 weeks old and is characterized by vomiting and wasting.

Hepatitis E virusHepatitis E has been identified in pigs with uncertain clinical significance, but it is a very important viral infection in humans, mostly seen in third world countries of Asia and Africa.

InfluenzaInfluenza is a respiratory disease of high importance due to its fast transmission and zoonotic potential.

Japanese B EncephalitisJapanese B encephalitis is caused by a virus found in South Asia, it is transmitted by mosquitos and presents as reproductive problems.

Nipah virus diseaseThe Nipah virus is zoonotic causing respiratory disease in pigs and mild to severe symptoms or even death in humans.

PRRSThe Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is the viral infection with the highest economical impact in North America and many European countries. The virus causes reproductive problems and affects the respiratory system.

Porcine circovirosisPorcine circovirus is caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and has a huge economical impact. Clinically it is presented as a disease which deteriorates animals from the weaning to the finishing period producing a high mortality rate. It also causes dermatitis and nephropathia with high mortality.

Porcine cytomegalovirusCytomegalovirus is common and its consequences are often insignificant; it is characterized by rhinitis which causes sneezing.

Porcine epidemic diarrheaPorcine epidemic diarrhea is caused by a coronavirus leading to vomiting and diarrhea with mortality up to 100% within susceptible piglets under 2 weeks of age.

Porcine parvovirus infectionParvovirus affects mainly non-vaccinated primiparous sows, causing reproductive problems such as mummies.

Porcine respiratory coronavirusPorcine respiratory coronavirus is usually not of clinical importance, but seems to produce antibodies that protect against viral transmissible gastroenteritis.

RabiesRabies is a rare viral disease in pigs.

Rotavirus infectionRotavirus infections present clinically as diarrhea in nursing piglets or in the first 2 weeks after weaning

Swine poxSwine smallpox is a vesicular condition caused by a virus and is mainly transmitted through lice.

Swine vesicular diseaseSwine vesicular disease is not common, but its importance is based on its clinical presentation indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease. (FMD).

Teschen diseaseCommonly Teschovirus. Does not produce clinical cases, but there are very virulent strains that affect the central nervous system.

Torque teno sus virus In pigs, torque teno virus was initially associated with the wasting syndrome related to circovirus but today its importance is unknown.

Transmissible gastroenteritisTransmissible gastroenteritis is a very important and highly infectious disease in pigs, with severe impact in reproduction, where diarrhea can cause a 100% mortality in piglets younger than 2 weeks of age.

Vesicular exanthemaVesicular exanthema is clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease and therefore is of great importance.

Vesicular stomatitisVesicular stomatitis produces a disease clinically indistinguishable from foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and therefore is of great importance.

Diseases caused by parasites

AscariasisAscaris suum is the most significant intestinal parasite worldwide as it causes great economic loss.

CoccidiosisThe Coccidiosis disease is caused by intracellular protozoan parasites causing mainly diarrhea in piglets.

CryptosporidiosisCryptosporidium are parasites similar to coccidia parasites and can also cause diarrhea.

Lice infestation Haematopinus suis is the pig louse which can cause anemia, and is the main route of swinepox transmission.

MangeMange is a skin disease caused by an external parasite (mite) which is characterized by severe swelling which affects pig growth.

MetastrongylosisPneumonia caused by Metastrongylus spp worms is found worldwide, especially in pigs raised outdoors.

Red stomach wormThe red stomach worm can cause gastritis.

ToxoplasmosisToxoplasmosis infection is usually subclinical but is very significant due to its zoonotic potential

TrichinellosisTrichinella is an infection with no clinical signs, but is of great zoonotic importance.

TrichuriasisTrichuris suis (whip worm) is a parasite of the large intestine that causes diarrhea in growing pigs.

Nutritional deficiencies

Biotin deficiencyBiotin deficiency is rare, but it may take the form of skin condition or lameness with hair loss and / or cracks in hooves.

Iron deficiency anemiaCauses of anemia are several, but its clinical form is especially seen in piglets causing paleness and affecting its growth.

Mulberry heart diseaseVitamin E or selenium deficiency presents with sudden death in recently weaned piglets.

Osteoporosis, ricketts, Vit D deficiencyOsteoporosis is caused by a lack of calcium, phosphorus, or vitamin D, which causes weak bones prone to fractures.


AflatoxicosisAflatoxins are mycotoxins that are produced during drought periods and are very important because they are carcinogenic. They cause a reduction in protein synthesis that affects pig growth and weakens their immune system.

ErgotismAt low levels, the toxins produced by ergot cause reduced growth. Present in substantial amounts, they produce gangrene in extremities and ear and tail necrosis.

Fumonisin toxicosisFumonisin is a very potent mycotoxin that causes pulmonary edema with high mortality.

Salt poisoningSalt poisoning is common; it is related to the unavailability of water and it affects the central nervous system.

VomitoxicosisVomitoxin is a mycotoxin that causes reduced feed intake, resulting in slow growth.

Zearalenone toxicosisIt is an estrogenic toxin that appears in corn and is produced by Fusarium graminearum, which requires high levels of moisture for its replication and toxin production.


Atresia aniAnal atresia is a congenital condition in which piglets are born without the outer hole of the rectum. These pigs have an abdomen that increases in size with age. The condition is difficult to repair and therefore these piglets must be euthanized.

Congenital TremorSporadic disease in which tremors are observed in newborn piglets. They appear at birth and are reduced with age.

Epitheliogenesis imperfectaCongenital condition in which the piglet is born with the absence of discrete areas of skin. It is rare.

FrostbiteResult of skin and superficial tissue necrosis due to low temperatures.

Gastric ulcersGastric ulcers are common and are characterized by pale, anemic pigs with bloody feces.

Hemorrhagic bowel syndromeThe cause of hemorrhagic bowel syndrome in pigs is unknown, but it results in sudden death.

HerniasAmong the many congenital abnormalities, umbilical or inguinal hernias are the most common. They are considered developmental defects and have a very low heritability.

OsteochondrosisOsteochondrosis is a non-infectious condition that causes lameness in fast-growing animals.

Pityriasis roseaPityriasis rosea is a noncontagious dermatitis present in young pigs 3-16 weeks old.

Porcine stress syndromePorcine stress syndrome is a genetic condition that causes sudden death and pale, soft, exudative muscle (PSE) resulting in dark, dry, tough meat.

Rectal prolapseThe eversion of the rectum.

Rectal strictureRectal constriction or narrowing is a frequent pathology considered as a consequence of rectal prolapse.

Shoulder ulcersShoulder ulcers occur in sows with low body condition and are detrimental to their welfare.

Splay legThis is a condition in which the newborn piglet is unable to keep its legs together.

SunburnSunburns occur especially in white pigs housed outdoors.

Thrombocytopaenic purpuraThrombocytopenia purpura is a rare disease seen in piglets 7-21 days old characterized by the failure for blood to coagulate normally.

Torsion of the stomach and the intestinesTorsion of the stomach or of the small intestine is common and causes sudden death.

Uterine ProlapseConsists of the partial or complete eversion of one or both uterine horns.

Vaginal and cervical prolapseProlapse of the vagina and cervix often occurs during the last third of gestation, including immediately after farrowing.

VicesVices in weaned and growing pigs can be significant on some farms, causing economic losses and increasing animal welfare concerns.