Atlas of pathology
Where: skin and subcutaneous tissue
The feet of this breeding pig has visible cracks in the horn walls of the hoof and claws. The cracks often occur in a vertical or a horizontal crack, formation, often with some haemorrhage, or around the softer ground-facing heel and sole of the feet. The foot pain causes the pig lameness, with uneven, swaying steps and shifting weight on the feet. The hoof comprises a hard wall and on the ground-facing side, a softer sole and heel. Cracks will develop in these structures if the feet of the breeding pig do not develop properly and the feet are stressed by movements around rough floors, and wet, slippery conditions. The hoof wall is continually growing, so proper nutrition needs to be on-going, particularly an appropriate amount of both biotin and zinc, as well as amino acids. A minimum level of dietary biotin for sows raised on concrete is considered to be around 300 µg per kg of feed and for soluble zinc around 100 mg per kg of feed is needed.