Atlas of pathology

Lordosis and Kyphosis

Where: musculoskeletal system

Possible causes: Osteoporosis, ricketts, Vit D deficiencyOsteochondrosisOther

The present form of lordosis and kyphosis was affecting up to 5% of the feeding herd with irrelevance of the sex, although males were more affected than females. This could be related to the fast growth rate of them over the females. The finding of bony exostoses in the ribs and the thickened costochondral junctions at post-mortem examination leaded to a metabolic disorder related to the diet by causing decreased mineralisation of the bone. The early onset of the problem combined with lameness from 5 weeks of age made the suspicion that the problem could have started during the foetal stage. Therefore, dry sow diets were the main focus of investigation. High levels of vitamin A and poor Ca:P ratio were detected in the dry sow diets. The correction of the diets improved the situation.

Kyphosis in pigs may develop secondary to a number of different primary lesions located in the vertebrae, such as osteomyelitis, fractures, neoplasm and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, painful conditions of the legs and back, musculo-mechanical stress on the lumbar spine, early onset of puberty in male pigs and intrauterine viral infections have been proposed as causes of kyphosis in pigs. Suggestions of genetic involvement have been suggested.

Kyphosis and lordosis could be a factor of carcass downgrading as a consequence of the difficulty of processing the muscles around the backbone by the butcher.

Jesús Borobia
Where

cardiovascular system

digestive system

intestines

liver

mouth

stomach

genitourinary system

bladder

female genitourinay tract

kidney

male genitourinay tract

mammary gland

lymphatic system

lymph nodes

spleen

thymus

tonsils

musculoskeletal system

nervous system

other

respiratory system

lungs

nasal cavity

skin and subcutaneous tissue

Disease

Diseases caused by bacteria

App

Clostridium novyi

Clostridium perfringens

Mycoplasma suis

Actinobacillosis

Anthrax

Atrophic Rhinitis

Bordetelosis

Brucellosis

Colibacillosis

Colitis

Edema disease

Enzootic Pneumonia (EP)

Erysipela

Exudative Epidermitis

Glässer disease

Ileitis

Leptospirosis

Mycoplasma arthritis

Pasteurellosis

Salmonellosis

Streptococcal infections

Swine dysentery

Tuberculosis

Yersinia infection

Diseases caused by virus

African swine fever

Aujeszky's disease

Blue eye disease

Classical Swine Fever

Encephalomyocarditis

Foot-and-mouth disease

Influenza

Japanese B Encephalitis

Nipah virus disease

Porcine circovirosis

Porcine cytomegalovirus infection

Porcine epidemic diarrhea

Porcine parvovirus infection

Porcine respiratory coronavirus infection

PRRS

Rotavirus infection

Swine pox

Swine vesicular disease

Teschen disease

Transmissible gastroenteritis

Diseases caused by parasites

Ascariasis

Coccidiosis

Mange

Metastrongylosis

Trichinellosis

Trichuriasis

Nutritional deficiencies

Biotin deficiency

Iron deficiency anemia

Mulberry heart disease

Osteoporosis, ricketts, Vit D deficiency

Toxicoses

Aflatoxicosis

Ergotism

Fumonisin toxicosis

Salt poisoning

Zearalenone toxicosis

Other

Atresia ani

Congenital Tremor

Epitheliogenesis imperfecta

Frostbite

Gastric ulcers

Hemorrhagic bowel syndrome

Hernias

Osteochondrosis

Other

Pityriasis rosea

Porcine stress syndrome

Prolapse of the vagina and cervix

Rectal prolapse

Rectal stricture

Shoulder ulcers

Splay leg

Sunburn

Thrombocytopaenic purpura

Torsion of the stomach and the intestines

Uterine Prolapse

Vice