Delta coronavirus

The diarrhea caused by deltacoronavirus is similar to porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) but with a very low severity.

Alternative names: Deltacoroavirus, Delta corona virus

Information

The diarrhea caused by deltacoronavirus is similar to porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) but with a very low severity. The virus damages the villi in the gut and thus reduces the surface capable of absorbing, having then fluid loss and dehydration. Colostrum immunity protects piglets.

Acute outbreaks occur when piglets are form 3 to 5 weeks old, and mortality varies widely. Its clinical condition is similar to that of other coronaviruses (PED and in TGE).

 

Symptoms

Sows

  • Varies from a mild diarrhea (stool consistency like cow feces) to a very watery.
  • Mushy stools.
  • Vomiting.

Lactating piglets

  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Dehydration.
  • Mortality can be high especially for piglets below14 days.

Nursery and fattening

  • Acute watery diarrhea without blood or mucus.
  • Low mortality.
  • Vomiting.

Causes / Contributing Factors

  • The disease can perpetuate as new susceptible pigs enter into the fattening stage or reproductive stage facilities.
  • The disease is usually seen only when the virus first enters the farm, especially after PED.

 

Diagnosis

It is suspected by clinical signs but cannot be differentiated from TGE and PED. The presence of the organism is confirmed by PCR. 

 

Control/Prevention

  • Because it is a viral infection there is no specific treatment.
  • The biosecurity in the farm must be maintained at a very high level.
  • If the virus enters for the first time it is important to ensure that all adult animals get infected at the begining to allow immunity to develop. It can be achieved by exposing sows through drinking water by mixing contaminated material or diarrhea in a bucket with water and using it as a source of infection
  • The growing pig normally recovers without treatment unless there is a concurrent disease such as swine dysentery. In such cases it may be necessary to use antibiotics in water or preventive medication in the feed.
  • The systems all in / all out with disinfectants often break the cycle of the disease.
  • The virus is easily removed with phenolic disinfectants, bleach, peroxides, aldehydes or iodophors.