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Dimension and design of the farrowing unit

The farrowing unit is the most expensive building in the sow unit, but also a very important one. It should provide comfort for the sow and for the newborn piglets as well accommodate the staff, while carrying out management procedures. The objective of the farrowing unit is to deliver as many piglets with a high weaning weight as possible. Of course, technology is only one part of this equation; thermal environment and management also play an important role.

Farrowing unit – considerations
In the first article of this series it was demonstrated that the farrowing unit must be designed for 5 weeks occupation for a 4-week weaning system. Next, each unit should be designed for all in all out management to allow cleaning between batches and close control of the temperature.

The number of pens per room depends on genetics and herd size. Thus, if prolific hybrids such as the French or Danish ones are used 10-15% extra pens must be added per room for foster mothers. These pens will stay empty until foster sows are moved into the section from another farrowing unit. The number of pens required for foster sows may be calculated from the average number of liveborn and the average number of piglets per sow after cross-fostering.

Normally, one farrowing room per sow batch is sufficient. However, in herds with more than 2000 sows it might worthwhile having two farrowing rooms per batch to allocate workload of cleaning pens and moving sows over more days. The American version is to design each farrowing room for 20-24 sows and wean 4-5 days per week.

Temperature control of the farrowing unit is extremely important. Since two types of animals with completely opposite temperature demands are housed in the same unit – this task is not easy. The newborn piglet requires a temperature of 34 C at birth, which is reduced to 28-30 C at weaning, while the sow’s preference is a temperature of 20-22 C at farrowing and 15-16 C at 3-4 weeks after farrowing while milk production and feed intake peaks.

Another important design criteria is noise. According to EU legislation noise levels must be kept below 85dB(A). Studies have shown that the nursing and suckling pattern might be disturbed and milk production may be smaller for sows exposed to similar or higher noise levels. Thus, noise from ventilation fans should be considered.

System design
Fulfilment of the biological requirements of the piglets and sows are fundamental when designing the farrowing unit. Globally, the farrowing crate has been the most common answer to this dilemma. The farrowing crate comes in a wide variety of designs. When it comes to the temperature requirement of the piglets it is most commonly solved by providing a heated creep area. Frequently, the creep area is a water heated mat on one or both sides of the sow. This type of design allows easy inspection of the piglets and effortless cleaning while providing a warm surface for the piglets. However, it also adds extra heat to the room, which is unfavourable for the sow.

A newer type of design comprises a covered creep area with a water heated floor, which is more commonly used in Northern Europe. The covered creep area provides a microclimate for the piglets while the room temperature is not affected. It should provide an area of 0.7-0.8 m2 to allow enough space for all piglets.

During warm periods cooling is required to reduce the negative effects of heat on sow feed intake and milk production. It must be remembered that heat production of a lactating sow is at least twice that of a pregnant animal.

Pen design
The farrowing stall – the second important feature of the farrowing crate - is meant to control the sow’s body movements while lying down. The Danish pig producers’ research organisation has tested a number of different designs. They recommend pen dimensions of 2.7x1.8 m to accommodate modern prolific breeds. In addition, they propose that stall length should be 200-210 cm long and have an adjustable width from 35 up to 90 cm. The width of the stall should be adjustable to provide space for the piglets according to their growth. At farrowing the pen should be in a narrow to position to force the sow to lie down slow before turning to a recumbent position.

Stall steel bars should be horizontal to allow easy access to the sow. The bottom bar should have fingers and must not impede suckling and nursing behaviour. Danish stalls are always positioned in an angle to allow enough space for the creep area. Moreover, this position allows the caretaker to move freely around the crate without getting out of the pen.

Flooring must not injure the sow or the piglets and should be non-slippery in the sow zone – preferably cast iron 10/10 mm and should provide good pen hygiene in general.

Figure 1. Comparison of fully slatted and partly slatted farrowing crate.

Fully slatted:
  • Cast iron under sow
  • Plastic along sides
  • Good hygiene
  • High room temperature
  • High ammonia emission
Partially slatted:
  • Concrete floor under sow
  • Cast iron 110-120 cm at rear
  • Fair hygiene
  • Low room temperature
  • Low ammonia emission

Figure 2. New Danish recommendations regarding farrowing pen design.
  • Adjustable side
  • Space for nursing
  • 20 cm behind rear gate
  • 180 cm x 270 cm
Creep area
  • 0.8 m2 creep area

Fully slatted pens increase ammonia emission as compared to partly slatted pens, but they are easier to clean. Partly slatted pens are most commonly used in Denmark due to the fact that frequency of injuries is lower, temperature and ammonia emission are easier to control than in fully slatted ones.

It should be noted that raised flooring in the sow zone has not been documented to prevent piglet crushing or improve pen output.

Lack of water is the first limiting factor for a high milk production. Therefore, the sow trough should be provided with a high yielding water nipple (10-13 litre/min). Low water yield from water nipples is one of the most common technology failures in farrowing units.

Piglets should also have access to a water nipple or small water bowl. But it is important to be aware of the water hygiene. Since piglets do not activate the water nipple the first couple of weeks after birth – old water should be removed through the water nipple before they start using it.

The sow trough should be shaped to accommodate the sow’s anatomy (head) and eating motions. Generally, it should have a volume of at least 20 litres. The trough design must accommodate easy cleaning without any blind corners or sharp edges that may injure the sow.

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Article Comments

This area is not intended to be a place to consult authors about their articles, but rather a place for open discussion among users.

pignetOther15-Nov-2013(2 years 13 days ago)

Figure 2. New Danish recommendations regarding farrowing pen design... wow its great even me i can felt the sow is very much comfortable.. the pen is so fit for the shape of the sow... would you permitted me to copy your design sir.


jm quilario06-Feb-2014(1 years 9 months 22 days ago)

for me, it's inhumane. give the sow enough space to move and do its natural behavior. thick straw or rice hull is more natural bedding than this concrete floor.

Patrica Tamagini 03-Jul-2014(1 years 4 months 25 days ago)

This is unconscionable. What is wrong with people? People shpuld stop eating meat for animals, the environment, and their own health, but if you continue to, there's no reason to keep the animals like this. It's simply inhumaine and cruel.

Susan Scarff04-Jul-2014(1 years 4 months 24 days ago)

For the sake of the sow and the piglets less stress would be to put her in a pen where she could what about in care for her piglets in a natural behaviour she should be on a bed of straw not concrete!! i just don't understand why she is locked up away from nurturing her piglets. What is the reason? if you insist on eating pork which by the way is extremely bad for humans then let nature look after nature and stop interfering

samurai Veterinary practitioner/consultant13-Dec-2014(11 months 15 days ago)

Are you talking about loose farrowing pens? If so, that means less sows per farrowing unit and finally more many to pay in stores for 1 kg of bacon.

GIL M. REYES11-Feb-2015(9 months 17 days ago)

I want new methods for mass production and techniques for producing hogs in the local market.

Try our Philipppine Technology, a new method of production that renders no foul odor in the manure, wualtiy meat with low cholesterol, lean meat and less fats and with no antibiotic and chemical residue.

Nathaniel Bwalya27-Feb-2015(9 months 1 days ago)

The idea of farrowing pens made of metal and possibly portable is a good one.

Chris TiongPig producer24-Mar-2015(8 months 4 days ago)

Starting a new intergrated pig farm.
Area of 2000 acres with target SPP of 300,000

DAVID MUCHOCHOMA30-Apr-2015(6 months 29 days ago)


Valerie Rock05-Jun-2015(5 months 23 days ago)

Get as much information beforehand. Visit other pig operations. Talk to the people who own the operation. Talk to people who work there - with management permission of course. Visit with Veterinarians regarding pigs. Attend a swine conference or class. There are some good online classes through a few colleges. And do a financial analysis! I enjoy farrowing pigs and raising them. But I barely break even because I did not make a business plan ahead of time. Good success to you!!

I am Please to help you about this.E mail me sao that I can give you the details on how to do it for free.

Prince Arante17-Nov-2015(11 days ago)

sir can you pls send to my emails more information on how to start a pig farm and how to lower the cost of production. thank you very much

anncpardoOther07-Jun-2015(5 months 21 days ago)

PLease include markets and Prices in the Philippines in your list. Thanks

mbusa chrispus07-Jun-2015(5 months 21 days ago)

As an inspired entrepreneur, by napoleon hill i buy the idea but the building must be well ventilated and 30-50cm above the ground to prevent dumbness during a rainy season. The floor must not be made of metal but of seasoned/cured clay covered with litter /saw dust to keep the gilt warm thus preventing them from chilling.

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