It is difficult for a single additive to mimic the effect of the addition of antibiotics or ZnO. This is why we need to combine groups of additives in water and feed, so they act both, as prevention and treatment.
Products obtained from insects have a high proportion of crude protein: 40-44% in the case of the black soldier fly larvae, or up to 60% in the case of black fly larvae or in grasshoppers, and even reaching 70% in the case of silkworms.
In the previous paper, the effects of nutrient restriction and consequent catabolism during lactation on sow reproduction yield have been addressed. In the present paper, the efficiency of sows in using energy from feed and body mass is considered.
The study described here was designed to determine if the body tissue mobilization during lactation imposed by feed restriction could affect litter size and sow performance in the subsequent lactation.
With the restrictions on antimicrobial use as a preventive measure, a new era is born in the design of pre-weaning and grower diets. The transition to this new scenario must be approached in a comprehensive way.
Biological alterations in immune and intestinal systems occur immediately after weaning that affect subsequent pig growth and health.
Pelleting and extrusion can potentially increase energy and nutrient digestibility of swine diets and their effects are affected by the diet composition.
Pigs exposed to heat stress increase their body temperature and reduce the size of their intestinal villi, thus increasing the loss of endogenous AAs and reducing the abundance of AA transporters in the intestine, as well as apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of AAs.