Needle-free injection technology improves the dispersion of vaccines throughout the tissue.
NFID administered swine vaccines can use half to a tenth of the dose required for intramuscular vaccines because of the higher antigen dispersion and contact with the antigen presenting cells found in skin.
A method to quantify the relative economic importance of pig health status at placement by specific pathogens (PRRSv and PEDv) and to estimate the effect of a specific type of PRRSv at a specific production system is presented.
The first and the most important condition at the beginning of PRRSV control program is to disrupt virus circulation in the reproductive herd.
The tissue damage is the consequence of direct apoptosis (and necrosis) of alveolar macrophage and their neighboring cells due to the release of apoptotigenic cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide.
Currently, no single RT-PCR assay could be recommended as a universal method allowing for detection of all PRRSV strains with optimal sensitivity.
In Korea, it is common to vaccinate sows as a whole-herd mass vaccination program, where all sows are vaccinated quarterly with a type 2 PRRSV vaccine. Therefore, it is recommended to vaccinate breeding females quarterly with additional type 1 PRRSV vaccine to control type 1 PRRSV infection.