Actinobacillus (A.) pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and causes significant losses in the pig industry worldwide. Early host immune response is crucial for further progression of the disease. A. pleuropneumoniae is either rapidly eliminated by the immune system or switches to a long-term persistent form. To gain insight into the host-pathogen interaction during the early stages of infection, pigs were inoculated intratracheally with A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and humanely euthanized eight hours after infection. Gene expression studies of inflammatory cytokines and the acute phase proteins haptoglobin, serum amyloid A and C-reactive protein were carried out by RT-qPCR from the lung, liver, tonsils and salivary gland. In addition, the concentration of cytokines and acute phase proteins were measured by quantitative immunoassays in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum and saliva. In parallel to the analyses of host response, the impact of the host on the bacterial pathogen was assessed on a metabolic level. For the latter, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR-) spectroscopy was employed.
Significant cytokine and acute phase protein gene expression was detected in the lung and the salivary gland however this was not observed in the tonsils. In parallel to the analyses of host response, the impact of the host on the bacterial pathogen was assessed on a metabolic level. For the latter investigations, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR-) spectroscopy was employed. The bacteria isolated from the upper and lower respiratory tract showed distinct IR spectral patterns reflecting the organ-specific acute phase response of the host.
In summary, this study implies a metabolic adaptation of A. pleuropneumoniae to the porcine upper respiratory tract already during early infection, which might indicate a first step towards the persistence of A. pleuropneumoniae. Not only in lung, but also in the salivary gland an increased inflammatory gene expression was detectable during the acute stage of infection.
Sassu EL, Frömbling J, Duvigneau JC, Miller I, Müllebner A, Gutiérrez AM, Grunert T, Patzl M, Saalmüller A, von Altrock A, Menzel A, Ganter M, Spergser J, Hewicker-Trautwein M, Verspohl J, Ehling-Schulz M, Hennig-Pauka I; Host-Pathogen Interplay at Primary Infection Sites in Pigs Challenged with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae; BMC Vet Res. 2017 Feb 28;13(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s12917-017-0979-6. PMID: 28245826 PMCID: PMC5329957 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-017-0979-6