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What causes coughing in pigs?

Any factor that irritates or inflames the respiratory system will elicit the physiological response of either sneezing or coughing or both. Although alarming and indicative of disease, coughing is at least a sign that normal physiological responses are taking place and should not in isolation be necessarily seen as a bad thing. We may have sudden or generalized outbreaks of coughing as well as a constant coughing in pig groups. There are infectious pathogenic agents that are normally associated with coughing or laboured breathing in pigs such as Actinobacillus, Bordetella, Haemophilus, Pasteurella Streptococcus, Mycoplasma, SIV, PRRSV or PCV2.

Wednesday 12 November 2008 (10 years 8 months 6 days ago)
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It is logical to assume that any factor that irritates or inflames the respiratory system will elicit the physiological response of either sneezing or coughing or both. However, not all diseases of the airways produce such expected clinical signs. In pigs, chronic bronchopneumonia is more commonly seen as a failure to thrive rather than as outbreaks of coughing and laboured respiration. Coughing is therefore generally an indication that whatever insult is causing it is in its early stages.

Unless individual pigs are identified as they are first seen to cough, the observational impression is that a certain percentage of a population of affected pigs is always coughing. This portion will not necessarily be the same pigs at each observation because, as time passes, some pigs recover as others become affected. The pattern of coughing can therefore provide useful information in making a diagnosis.

A sudden and widespread outbreak of coughing indicates a either an environmental insult or a highly contagious and infectious pathogen has suddenly presented itself. On the other hand, constant coughing in clusters of pigs might indicate a more longstanding problem.
Coughing is an important defensive reflex reaction designed to expel inflammatory secretions and foreign material from the respiratory tract. If the mechanism of coughing is suppressed for any reason, the system is not cleared of infection and the situation becomes chronic. Although alarming and indicative of disease, coughing is at least a sign that normal physiological responses are taking place and should not in isolation be necessarily seen as a bad thing.

Table 1 shows the infectious pathogenic agents that are normally associated with coughing or laboured breathing in pigs. The most commonly occurring and most important are shown in bold type.

Table 1. Pathogens that cause coughing and/or dyspnoea in pigs.


M. hyorhinis
M. hyopneumoniae
Swine Influenza

Respiratory coronavirus
Porcine cytomegalovirus
Aujeszky's Disease
Classical swine fever
African swine fever

In addition to pathogenic agents, it must be appreciated that there are other factors that will from time to time cause pigs to cough (Table 2).

Table 2. Other causes of coughing and/or dyspnoea in pigs.

Other patologies
Cardiac insufficiency
Porcine stress syndrome
Diaphragmatic hernia
Heat stress
Manure gases
Nitrate poisoning
Bacterial endotoxins
Fungal spores


Infection with the roundworm, Ascaris suum, is often associated with coughing because it causes an eosinophillic inflammation of the lung as the third larval stage of the life-cycle migrates through the lung tissue. The larval migration can also act as a trigger factor for otherwise dormant bacterial infection.

Anaemic pigs may show laboured breathing as they struggle to compensate for lack of oxygen arising from the reduction in circulating red blood cells and therefore haemoglobin. They will be more prone to the inhalation of foreign material which, in turn can cause coughing. If cardiac insufficiency arises, respiratory secretions are less easily cleared from the lung and a “heart cough” can develop. However, this is more likely to be associated with occasional individual pigs.

Environmental causes of coughing are relatively common. I personally know of a number of farms where coughing occurs in finishing pigs but there is very little visible pathology to be seen on the slaughter line. In these situations, gross irritation of the airways, together with suppression of the microscopic lung defense mechanisms, will lead to coughing. The most common causes of this combined effect are hot conditions and dust. Other airborne contaminants associated with dust, such as bacterial endotoxin and fungal spores, make matters worse. The approach to solving the problem of coughing pigs must therefore always be multifactorial.


PRRS: Transmission via direct and indirect routes (1/2)26-Nov-2008 10 years 7 months 22 days ago

Article Comments

This area is not intended to be a place to consult authors about their articles, but rather a place for open discussion among pig333.com users.
16-Dec-2011Yvette FieldwickYvette FieldwickMy gilt has a chesty flemmy cough. Without having to pay a £70 call out fee from my vet. Is there any medication that you can recommend.
06-Dec-2016Jeremy Jeremy I have 5 little piglets and they are great a cold really bad they are coughing a lot,runny stools,and they have a little temperature the weather here is very cold and snowy is there anything I can give them to get better fast?
02-Apr-2017IrmaIrmaI brought a runt pig home from a rescue to bottle feed. It is maybe 3-4 weeks old. It has developed a cough. Should I be worried? It has gained over a pound in the last 10days.
02-Jan-2013Sam BoraSam Borai like this website because i study vet in university
10-Feb-2015jesslyn brooksjesslyn brooksMy pig has a dry cough on and off what medication can you recommend
13-Jun-2015kathykathyMy gilts have a dry cough what can I do???
04-Oct-2015SydneySydneyrecommendation for dry cough in two month old pig
05-May-2016alicealicehave had 6 week old pigs for two weeks the one has been coughing for a couple days our weather has been very rainy they have shelter they can go into but iam concerned to let it go to long do you have any suggestions
19-Feb-2015New York Healthcare LawyerNew York Healthcare Lawyeri want to say that this post has great content...
05-Apr-2015RobRobwey snotty cough in my gilt have pine shavings for bedding just gave 1.5ml of penclin any other ideas or comments?
11-Feb-2016Cresencio hipolitoCresencio hipolitoSneezing and coughing sows
17-May-2015JillJillFFA hog has cough, slowing of appetite, shows next weekend. Can you use over the counter cough medication to help?
19-May-2015AlisonAlisonJill, if I were you I would immediately get your hog tested for PRRS virus. Those sound like classic symptoms and if you take your hog to show and expose other porcine it could be a disaster. It is a simple blood test and depending on where you have it ran, you could have results within a few hours.
01-Jun-2015paulopaulomasters?? hmmnn my swine have cough...is vetri can help?(antibacterial)
10-Jul-2015hongphudinh8223hongphudinh8223i surf pig333 everyday
16-Jul-2015AndrewAndrewFor those of you grappling with this problem, I personally recommend adding FRA C12 DRY (1-Monolaurin) in swine feeds as I found it to be very effective in controlling coughing and related mortality caused by many types of viruses, bacteria and mycoplasma. The product is manufactured by Framelco BV, Holland and it should be available in most countries in Europe and Asia. I usually add it at 1-1.5 kg/ton continuously.
16-Sep-2015Joseph TangaJoseph Tangaif the pigs slow down the apatite,skin rash,and instant coughing,then cut one single leave of aloe Vera plant,let it drop in the glass, then later mix it into one cup of water and give it to each sick pig. hey watch it then getting better in only thirty minutes
25-Oct-2015MichelleMichelleThree of my pigs struggled to breath and died a few minutes later. I am not sure if it is the wood shavings but the other pigs are ok.
02-Dec-2015DarwinDarwinmy pig has a cough bout 2 weeks, what should i do? what are effective medicine for my pig?
06-Mar-2016l n sahul n sahuNice information
10-Oct-2016kuldeep singhkuldeep singhcan we human medicines to pigs
04-Apr-2017Chrystal MurphyChrystal MurphySo i got a sal and her 8 babies from an auction two weeks ago. The two runts have passed away but now im starting to worry about three more because they have really shallow breathing and have had the runs really bad. They are at least 3 weeks old. I have given momma meds because she was a litte on the sick side and now its like the babies are all getting sick
23-Mar-2018Sydneysnow014Sydneysnow014I have a barrow who is coughing and not eating. The coughing has sustained for about 2 weeks and he hasnt eaten in almost 2 days. What should I do.
10-Jan-2019DramacollegeDramacollegePiggery is a very interesting venture. I got into it and found it fabulous.
10-Jan-2019DramacollegeDramacollegeOne of my pigs is coughing. I got worried about it.
What can i give as a cure
22-Jun-2019EsthermwembaEsthermwembaMy one week piglets are coughing and difficult in breathing ,what can i give them.please help
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