Key findings of the report
• Campylobacter: In humans, high levels of resistance were recorded for the antimicrobial ciprofloxacin (47%) as well as for resistance to ampicillin (43%) and nalidixic acid (40%). Resistance to another important antimicrobial – erythromycin - was low (3.1%).
• Salmonella: The report shows that resistance to common antimicrobials like ampicillin, tetracycline and sulphonamide was moderate, with around 20% of the tested bacteria considered resistant. Resistance to clinically important antimicrobials - third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones - was below 10%.
• E. coli: The report did not include data on resistance to antimicrobials in E. coli in humans.
• In animals, Campylobacter also showed high levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin. This was in particular the case for chickens (46% in Campylobacter jejuni and 78% in the Campylobacter coli) and also pigs (50% in Campylobacter coli).
• Salmonella: In animals, high levels of resistance were recorded for ampicillin, tetracycline and sulphonamide in pigs and pig meat (47-60%), cattle (37-40%) and chicken meat (27-33%). A moderate level of resistance to ciprofloxacin was recorded in chickens and chicken meat (around 20%).
• Non-disease causing E. coli showed high levels of resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin and sulphonamide in pigs and chicken; and E. coli was found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin in chicken (47%) and also in pigs (12%). The occurrence of third-generation cephalosporin resistance was still low.