In 2018, for use in all livestock species 226 tons of antibiotic active ingredient were sold in the UK, which is a 9% decrease from 2017 and down 49% from 2014. Sales adjusted for population in 2018 were 29.5 mg/kg, a 9% drop from 2017 and a 53% drop from 2014.
Certain antibiotic classes are categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as critically important antibiotics for human use, of which several are designated as ‘highest priority critically important antibiotics’ (HP-CIA). Sales of HP-CIAs for use in livestock in 2018 dropped by 0.4 tons (18%) from an already low level in 2017; a drop of 3.1 tonnes (66%) since 2014. From a mg/kg standpoint, sales of HP-CIAs dropped from 0.26 mg/kg in 2017 to 0.21 mg/kg (19%) in 2018. Overall, tetracyclines remain the most sold antibiotic class (38%), followed by beta-lactams (27%) and trimethoprim/sulphonamides (10%). Sales of HP-CIAs in all animal species represent a small proportion (0.7%) of the overall antibiotic sales.
Antibiotic usage in pigs showed significant decreases from previous years. "Usage" refers to the amount of antibiotics purchased, prescribed and/or administered per sector. The data have been collected and provided to the VMD by the animal industry on a voluntary basis. 89% of UK pigs were covered by the data. In the pig sector, 76 tons of antibiotic active ingredient were used; the total per unit of 110 mg/kg down 16% from 2017 (down 40% from 2016 and 60% from 2015). Use of highest priority critically important antibiotics in pigs was down 39% from 2017 at 41 kg active ingredient and 0.06 mg/kg per unit.
In all livestock, a high percentage of all Salmonella isolates tested (76% of 4,414 total isolates) was susceptible to all the antibiotics tested; the results indicate an increasing trend in this susceptible proportion. Resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins was detected in two isolates from chickens, but not in isolates from turkeys, pigs, cattle and sheep. In pigs, 0% resistance to 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins and 0% to fluoroquinolones were found.
E. coli resistance in livestock to fluoroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins was low (≤4%), except in cattle. Resistance to colistin was detected in one isolate from pigs, but not in other major food-producing animal species.
Tuesday, October 29, 2019/ VDM / United Kingdom.