Virus nucleic acids and antibody response to pathogens can be measured using swine oral fluids (OFs). Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome in swine OFs has previously been demonstrated. Virus isolation and viral antigen detection are additional confirmatory assays for diagnosing FMDV, but these methods have not been evaluated using swine OF.
The objectives of this study were to further validate the molecular detection of FMDV in oral fluids, evaluate antigen detection and FMDV isolation from swine OFs, and develop an assay for isotypic anti-FMDV antibody detection in OFs.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) from FMDV was detected in OFs from experimentally infected pigs by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) from 1 day post-infection (dpi) to 21 dpi. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) was isolated from OFs at 1 to 5 dpi. Additionally, FMDV antigens were detected in OFs from 1 to 6 dpi using a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test (LFIST), which is a rapid pen-side test, and from 2 to 3 dpi using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS ELISA). Furthermore, FMDV-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) was detected in OFs using an isotype-specific indirect ELISA starting at dpi 14.
These results further demonstrated the potential use of oral fluids for detecting FMDV genome, live virus, and viral antigens, as well as for quantifying mucosal IgA antibody response.
Chandrika Senthilkumaran, Ming Yang, Hilary Bittner, Aruna Ambagala, Oliver Lung, Jeffrey Zimmerman, Luis G. Giménez-Lirola, Charles Nfon. Detection of genome, antigen, and antibodies in oral fluids from pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research. April 2017, Vol. 81, No. 2.