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Substituting soybean meal for Brassica napus canola meal or Brassica juncea canola meal in weaned pigs diets

Soybean meal is preferred by piglets rather than Brassica napus or Brassica juncea but the use of these alternative protein sources does not affect piglet performance.

Friday 8 June 2018 (5 months 10 days ago)
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Canola meal (CM) can replace soybean meal (SBM) to reduce feed cost but may affect palatability, and a variety of causes including palatability can affect feed intake. Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meal (CM) can be used for this purpose, but compared to SBM, differ in fiber, glucosinolates content, and profile. Preference of weaned pigs provided double-choice selections to diets containing 20% SBM, B. napus CM, or B. juncea CM was evaluated in two studies. In the experiment 1, 216 pigs (9.4 ± 1.6 kg BW) were housed in 27 pens of 8 pigs mixed gilts and barrows (4 each). In experiment 2, 144 pigs (8.9 ± 1.1 kg BW) were housed in 36 pens of 4 pigs mixed gilts and barrows (2 each). Three dietary choices were offered to the pigs: B. napus CM with SBM as reference (B. napus CM [SBM]), B. juncea CM with SBM as reference (B. juncea CM [SBM]), and B. juncea CM with B. napus CM as reference (B. juncea CM [B. napus CM]) in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were formulated to provide 2.4 Mcal net energy/kg and 4.5 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal NE. Diets were balanced using canola oil and crystalline AA. Each pair of diets was offered in two self-feeders per pen as mash (experiment 1) or pellets (experiment 2) during three test-periods of 4-d, followed by a 3-d non-test period when a common diet was offered in both feeders. During preference periods and for both experiments, the feeders with different diets were rotated daily among pens, and also, feeder positions (right or left) were switched daily in experiment 2. Prior to the study and between periods, pigs were fed non-test diets containing SBM (experiment 1) or without test feedstuffs (experiment 2).

Overall and for both experiments, pigs preferred SBM over B. napus and B. juncea CM diets, and preferred B. napus over B. juncea CM diet. Although, dietary choice did not affect growth performance in both experiments, except for G:F, that was greater fed for pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets than pigs fed the B. napus CM [SBM] or B. juncea CM [SBM] diets in experiment 1.

In conclusion, weaned pigs preferred SBM over CM diets when given a choice, and preferred B. napus over the B. juncea diet probably driven by a higher level of total glucosinolates, especially gluconapin. Weaned pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets in the double-choice selection did not reduce feed intake, weight gain, and G:F compared to pigs fed the B. napus CM [SBM] or B. juncea CM [SBM] diets.

Landero, J. L., Wang, L. F., Beltranena, E., Bench, C. J., Zijlstra, R. T. 2018. Feed preference of weaned pigs fed diets containing soybean meal, Brassica napus canola meal, or Brassica juncea canola meal. Journal of animal science, 96(2), 600-611. https://doi.org/10.1093/jas/skx052

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