The deposition of manure originating from food animal farms in the environment can lead to the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacterial foodborne pathogens, thereby potentially impacting human health.
A total of 400 environmental samples (40 manure and 360 soil) were collected after repeated sampling from four commercial swine farms located in North Carolina (n = 1) and Iowa (n = 3) in the United States. At each farm, we collected 10 manure and 40 soil samples (20 samples before and after 2 h of manure application) from four plots (five soil samples/plot) on day 0. Subsequently, 20 soil samples were collected on day 7, 14, and 21 from the same plots.
A total of 67 (16.75%) MRSS were isolated from the 400 samples. The prevalence in soil and manure was 13.33% (48/360) and 47.5% (19/40), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the soil samples collected after 2 h of manure application on day 0 and decreased subsequently on 7, 14, and 21 days. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done against a panel of 12 antibiotics. A majority of S. sciuri isolates exhibited resistance against ampicillin (AMP; 95.5%), penicillin (PEN; 95.5%), clindamycin (CLI; 95.5%), cefoxitin (FOX; 92.5%), ceftiofur (XNL; 92.5%), tetracycline (TET; 86.56%), and erythromycin (ERY; 50.74%). The MDR pattern AMP FOX CLI PEN TET XNL (n = 24; 35.8%) was the most commonly observed. We detected multiple AMR genes, including mecA, aac(6'), Ie-aph(2″)Ia, tetM, tetK, mphC, ermA, ermB, and ermC. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clustered isolates from different sample collection days from the same farm into one group.
Overall, our study identifies swine manure as an important reservoir of MDR-MRSS and highlights its dissemination in the environment upon spreading of manure.
Kumar D, Pornsukarom S, Sivaraman GK, Thakur S; Environmental Dissemination of Multidrug Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus sciuri After Application of Manure from Commercial Swine Production Systems; Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2017 Dec 21. doi: 10.1089/fpd.2017.2354. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2017.2354 10.1089/fpd.2017.2354